and diet in the presence of mastopathy
Mastopathy is a group of benign pathological processes of breast tissue, mainly against the background of dyshormonal and dysmetabolic disorders, which include the processes of inflammation, proliferation, cyst formation, and others. (The term dyshormonal, means disorders that occur against the background of changes in hormonal balance, dysmetabolic - disorders that occur in metabolic disorders).
Breast screening plan for women.
Preventive examinations are examinations of contingents of relatively healthy people in order to detect diseases in the early stages, when there are no complaints.
From 18 to 25 years - a doctor's examination once a year.
From 25 years to 35 years - examination by a doctor once a year, ultrasound of the mammary glands once a year.
From 35 years to 50 years - Examination by a doctor once a year, ultrasound of the mammary glands once a year, mammography once every two years.
After 50 years - Examination by a doctor once a year, breast ultrasound once a year, mammography once a year.
Every woman from the age of 18 should have a breast self-examination once every three months.
The structure of the organization of oncological care is as follows:
1. Oncologist of the district polyclinic.
2. City Oncology Centers (Kyiv City Oncology Hospital, 69 Verkhovyna Street, tel .: 409-24-73; 450-92-64): provide assistance to city residents who have a permanent residence permit.
3. Regional oncology hospitals (Kyiv Regional Oncology Center - 1 Bagovutivska Street): provide assistance to residents of the region who have a residence permit in the region.
4. National Cancer Institute (33/43 Vasylkivska Street, tel .: 257-93-15): provides assistance to all citizens of Ukraine.
In our country, breast diseases are treated by oncologists, oncologists, or surgeons in the absence of a specialist oncologist in the clinic, as well as gynecologists and endocrinologists. This applies to both benign and malignant diseases. Therefore, a woman's anxiety is completely unjustified when she complains of pain in the breasts, and she is referred to an oncologist at the registry. This does not mean that she has cancer. The fact is that a separate medical specialty, such as - mammologist does not exist in the nomenclature of registered medical specialties, so officially in the staff of a medical institution can not be a mammologist. A doctor who provides care to patients with breast disease has a certificate in oncology, or oncosurgery, and courses or seminars on breast disease.
The most common reasons for seeing a doctor are discomfort or pain in the mammary glands and palpation of nodules or areas of compaction during the examination itself. Often, pain, discomfort, and swelling in the breasts, especially if they are new, are the cause of severe anxiety and fear for their health. It should be understood that in most cases, such symptoms are not a sign of severe disease, but often indicate a disorder of hormonal regulation on the background of stressful situations, fatigue, intimate disorders, or infectious and inflammatory diseases of the reproductive system, thyroid disorders, etc. . Focusing on pain and being in a state of constant anxiety, a woman does not consciously support disorders of hormonal regulation, because against this background stimulates the production of stress hormones that adversely affect breast tissue and reproductive organs. Sometimes it is enough to understand and calm down, relax, relieve psycho-emotional overload so that the pain disappears on its own within a few cycles. But a visit to the doctor is mandatory.
Risk factors for breast disease
1. Heredity (diseases of maternal relatives)
2. Reproductive history, namely early and frequent abortions, refusal of breastfeeding or breastfeeding for less than 5 months, early menstruation - up to 11 years, late menopause - after 55 years, early menopause up to 45 years, infertility, miscarriage, first childbirth over the age of 30, the duration of menstruation is more than 5 days, uterine bleeding
3. Violation of the hormonal background: overweight, uncontrolled intake of contraceptives, disorders of the endocrine organs, including the thyroid gland, diabetes.
4. Psychoneurogenic factors - nervous stress during the last year
5. Nutritional factors (including food impurities). Consumption of smoked, canned foods, white muffins, caffeine.
7. Bad habits: smoking, alcohol abuse.
8. Dissatisfaction with sexual life.
9. Injuries to the breast and uterus
10. Gynecological diseases - uterine bleeding, uterine fibroids, chronic inflammation of the uterus and appendages, ovarian cysts.
Mastopathy is divided into three groups:
1. Diffuse forms
With a predominance of glandular component (adenosis).
With a predominance of fibrous component (fibroadenomatosis).
With a predominance of cystic component.
Mixed form of diffuse mastopathy (fibrocystic mastopathy).
2. Nodal forms.
3. Benign tumors and tumor-like processes (adenoma, fibroadenoma, intraductal papilloma, solitary cyst).
4. Special forms: leaf-like (phylloid) tumor.
Diffuse forms are characterized by a violation of the architecture of breast tissue, the predominance of one type of tissue over another (for example, fibrous mastopathy - the growth of connective tissue, adenosis mastopathy - an increase in the volume of glandular tissue). Nodular forms include - focal fibromatosis, focal adenosis.
Diseases of the breast do not occur in isolation, but are a manifestation of hormonal disorders, or metabolism. Therefore, in the presence of manifestations of mastopathy it is important:
1. Treatment by a gynecologist in the presence of pathology of the reproductive system.
2. Examination of the thyroid gland by an endocrinologist.
3. Consultation of a gastroenterologist in diseases of the digestive system (cholecystitis, chronic pancreatitis, fatty hepatosis, etc.).
4. Consultation of a neurologist, psychologist in case of diseases of the nervous system (neuroses, consequences of stressful situations, etc.).
5. Examination of the hormonal background (reproductive hormones in two phases of the menstrual cycle, prolactin, thyroid hormones, others, according to the indications).
To diagnose diseases of the mammary glands used:
2. Examination and palpation by a doctor.
3. Ultrasound of the mammary glands.
4. Mammography, ductography, pneumocystography.
5. Puncture biopsy, trepan biopsy.
6. Exfoliative cytology (smear-imprint).
7. MRI of the mammary glands.
The examination is preferably performed on day 6-9 (maximum up to 12 days) of the lunar cycle (cycle days are counted as follows: from the first day of menstruation to the first day of the next menstruation)
According to the protocols of examination of the mammary glands it is recommended:
Every woman conducts a self-examination once every three months.
Examination and palpation by a specialist - once a year from 20 to 30 years and once every 6 months from 30 years - constantly.
Ultrasound of the mammary glands - a study of the structure of the mammary glands using ultrasound. Once a year after 25 years constantly.
Mammography - a special X-ray examination of the mammary glands. First performed in 40 years (according to some sources in 35 years). In the future once every two years up to 50 years and once a year after 50 years. Ductography is a mammographic examination of the mammary glands with contrast in case of suspicion of papilloma of the mammary duct. Pneumocystography is a contrast X-ray examination of breast cysts.
Puncture biopsy - taking material by puncture for cytological examination. Performed in the presence of suspected breast cancer, or in nodular forms of mastopathy. Trepan biopsy - special needles are used to obtain a column of tissue. It is desirable that the puncture biopsy and trepan biopsy be performed under the control of ultrasound or mammography, which allows you to qualitatively and with high accuracy to take material from the area of the pathological process.
Exfoliative cytology (smears-prints) - taking material on the glass in the presence of discharge from the nipples, with erosion in the nipple.
MRI of the mammary glands is performed according to special indications determined by a doctor.
Breast augmentation and mammography are methods that do not replace or exclude each other, but complement each other. Give more complete information when used in the complex and therefore after 50 years are used together for the purpose of professional examination. If breast pathology is suspected, ultrasound and mammography are also prescribed in the complex.
up to 35 years, mammography is performed only for special indications. The indication is determined by the doctor. This is because at a young age, breast tissue is very sensitive to ionizing radiation. Examination can do more harm than good also because the developed glandular tissue at a young age makes it difficult to diagnose diseases, namely: against the background of dense glandular tissue, it is almost impossible to see cysts, fibroadenoma and other tumors.
At diffuse forms apply the big arsenal of medicines, correction of a hormonal background, treatment of the accompanying pathology, normalization of a mode of day, a diet.
At nodular forms and benign tumors treatment operative with the subsequent pathohistological (intraoperative - during operation and postoperative inspection).
Adhere to the regime of vigor and rest.
Avoid stressful situations and psycho-emotional overload.
Harmonization of intimate life.
Limit time spent working with electromagnetic radiation sources (including computers).
Allocate time for sports. Swimming and yoga are useful.
More often to be in the fresh air.
Limit your stay in the sun, it is not recommended to visit the solarium.
The right choice of bra (appropriate shape, size, without rigid ribs). Climatic and time zones have a negative effect on the hormonal background and on the functioning of the reproductive system.
Avoid trauma to the mammary glands.