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The Central Polyclinic of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine conducts electromyographic examinations

EMG techniques

Surface EMG,

Needle EMG (or simply EMG),

Stimulation EMG

Surface (global, percutaneous, or total) EMG is a method of recording and studying muscle biopotentials at rest and under conditions of muscle activation by conducting bioelectrical activity with surface electrodes percutaneously over the muscle motor point. Needle (or local) EMG is a method of recording and studying the bioelectrical activity of motor fibers and motor units of a muscle using needle electrodes when they are inserted, at rest, and during arbitrary muscle activation.

Stimulus EMG is a method of recording and studying the bioelectrical activity of muscles and peripheral nerves caused by an electrical stimulus. Stimulation EMG includes the determination of parameters of muscle response (M-response), and pulse conduction velocity (PCV) along motor and sensory nerves. The complex of the needle, stimulation, and surface EMG is combined by the term clinical EMG or electroneuromyography (ENMG).

Today, the use of EMG is quite common in medical practice, as well as in kinesiology, biofeedback, and sports medicine. This is due to the ability of this technique to solve the following diagnostic tasks:

Detection of localization and prevalence of the lesion;

Determination of the degree of severity of impaired functions;

Determination of the stage and nature of the pathological process (denervation, reinnervation);

Monitoring the dynamics of impaired functions.

ENMG allows localizing the lesion at 8 levels of the corticomuscular pathway:



root level,

plexus level,

nerve trunk,

nerve fiber terminals,

neuromuscular synapse,

muscle fiber.

EMG gives an idea of the nature of the lesion: demyelinating (myelin sheath lesion) or axonal (axial cylinder lesion).

Indications for examination

Anterior horn level - ALS, amyotrophies;

Neural level - injuries of plexuses, nerves, hereditary, toxic somatogenic polyneuropathies;

Muscle level - muscle weakness, hereditary muscle diseases;

Lesions of the neuromuscular synapse - myasthenic syndromes, myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton syndrome;

Patients with motor unit dysfunction: neuropathy, neuropathy, myopathy.

Disorders of supraspinal control: tremors, hyperkinesis.

There are no contraindications to EMG, but there are several limitations: skin disorders, restrictions in case of sensitive and autonomic disorders, and acute phase of peripheral nervous system disease.

(с) 2024

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