The guarantee of accuracy of analysis results is not only professional equipment and highly qualified laboratory staff. An important condition that guarantees a reliable test result is the correct preparation of the patient directly before the test. Many factors (diet, exercise, emotional stress, medication, daily fluctuations in some indicators) can affect the results of laboratory tests. Therefore, in order to obtain accurate results, patients must strictly follow all the recommendations and requirements for preparation for tests.
When a doctor prescribes a referral for a laboratory test, he must tell the patient how to properly prepare for the tests so that the results can be used to make an accurate diagnosis and prescribe treatment. If the patient ignores this preparatory stage, then in the future the wrong diagnosis can be established or there can be a need of repeated delivery of analyzes.
Preparing the patient for a blood test
To exclude factors that affect the results of the study, in preparation for the general blood test, biochemical tests, blood clotting system, hormones, tumor markers, serological tests for HIV, syphilis, hepatitis, the following rules should be followed:
- Blood for laboratory tests is recommended to donate in the morning on an empty stomach after a 12-hour night fast;
- On the eve of the analysis it is necessary to refrain from physical activity, alcohol and medication (if possible), changes in the usual diet;
- Go to bed at normal times and get up no later than 1 hour before blood sampling;
- Refrain from smoking in the morning after getting up;
- If there are difficulties with drug withdrawal, you must notify your doctor or laboratory;
- Blood should be donated before X-ray, endoscopic, rectal examination, physiotherapy procedures;
- Immediately before taking blood, it is necessary to exclude physical activity (running, climbing stairs), emotional arousal, rest for 10-15 minutes.
Preparing the patient for urine analysis
General analysis of urine
On the eve of passing the urine test it is necessary to refrain from physical activity, alcohol intake, follow a normal lifestyle. For a general urine test, collect the entire first morning portion of urine in a dry, clean, labeled (last name, first name, patronymic) plastic or glass container (sterile disposable urine container) after thorough external genitalia toilet. The container is tightly closed with a lid. Delivered to the laboratory within 90 minutes of urination. It is desirable that the previous urination was not later than 2 o'clock at night.
Urine analysis by Nechiporenko
On the eve of passing the urine test it is necessary to refrain from physical activity, alcohol intake, go to bed at normal times. For urine analysis according to Nechiporenko, the average portion of urine is collected in a clean marked (surname, name, patronymic) plastic or glass container after a thorough toilet of the external genitalia. To collect the average portion of urine, the patient urinates the first part of the urine during urination, collects the middle portion in a container, the remaining urine is flushed down the toilet. The container is tightly closed with a lid, immediately delivered to the laboratory.
Urine analysis according to Zymnytsky
The patient collects urine every 3 hours during the day. A total of 8 servings in 8 separate clean containers. At 6 o'clock in the morning the patient empties the bladder, this portion of urine is poured out and begin collecting urine after 6 o'clock in the morning every 3 hours:
And portion: 6.15-9.00;
Second portion: 9.00-12.00;
Third portion: 12.00-15.00;
IV portion: 15.00-18.00;
V portion: 18.00-21.00;
VI portion: 21.00-24.00;
VII portion: 24.00-3.00;
VIII portion: 3.00-6.00.
Each container is marked with the patient's name and time of urine collection, tightly closed with a lid and stored in the refrigerator at a temperature of 4˚-8˚C. All 8 servings are delivered to the laboratory.
Analysis of urine for sugar
It is necessary to collect daily urine, the patient collects all portions of urine excreted in 24 hours. In the morning, the patient pours the first portion of urine into the toilet. Then, during the day, collect all the excreted urine in a 3-liter container, including a portion of urine the next morning. It should be stored in the refrigerator at all times. After collecting all the urine, it is thoroughly mixed and poured into a separate clean plastic or glass container of approximately 100 ml of urine, this container is labeled with the patient's name and daily urine volume and delivered to the laboratory.
Preparing the patient for fecal analysis
Before collecting feces for general clinical research (coprogram) it is necessary to cancel drugs that affect the appearance of fecal masses and increase intestinal motility. These are all laxatives, iron, bismuth, barium, rectal suppositories. It is not recommended to collect feces in women n